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Return by car to Kemble station and off to Paddington by the A beautiful and memorable outing! All our thanks to the Reverend Philip Morse and his wife, Irene, for planning such an interesting visit and for welcoming us all to their home for tea. On arrival we met with other Zolaphiles and walked to the Auberge Ile-de-France where we enjoyed a gourmet lunch. A jolly table of 16 pilgrims! Happiness and freedom prevailed during their meetings. The publisher, Charpentier, always brought Zola loads of press articles commenting on his work. I wrote an article, in one crash of thunder… I was possessed, I could no longer sleep, I had to free myself, I am strong enough, I can withstand everything].

La phrase se fait en moi toujours par euphonie. Sentences form themselves in my mind through euphony. I am inspired by their music and I listen to it. I hear the rhythm of a sentence. I begin the sentence and leave it to euphony to complete it]. I visited Lille on November and met with Karl Zieger and his colleagues who are all eager to cooperate on our Colloquium. The Library there is planning an exhibition on Zola on the theme of the colloquium. Items will come from their Reserve Stock; I might send them a few English novels of Zola in English, from my own collection, in order to add to their exhibits.

Documents will be drawn up and sent to participants, covering Hotels, transport, and outings, etc. There will be a visit to the Mine Museum in Lewarde; and a visit to Anzin. People who need to leave early on Saturday will be able to catch a train from Valenciennes to Lille after lunch. Friday 30th November: AGM followed by a talk, which will be announced later. Following the resignation of our two Publicity Officers no other names for these posts were put forward. However, the Committee would like to welcome Dr Sati Mckenzie who was elected as a new Committee Member with general responsibilities.

Members of the Society will be saddened to learn that on 30 June the distinguished Zola scholar Sarah Capitanio collapsed on the boulevard de Verdun in the Avignon suburb of Les Angles, and could not subsequently be revived. She will be remembered for her lifelong devotion to nineteenth-century French fiction, in particular her demonstrations of how Naturalism drew on the storytelling strategies of the popular novel. These skills came to the fore in the Graduate School when the traditional cull in Modern Languages prompted a timely sideways move.

It was a shared endeavour, since her husband John Macmillan also taught there. Her clarity of critical vision enabled Sarah to make narratology, often a tough nut to crack, clear and comprehensible to the reader. One of those attending happened to mention that he struggled with the target language in which it was to be delivered, whereupon Sarah threw away her script and launched into an impromptu English version! A noble sacrifice indeed, though some of us felt a little cheated that we would not hear her perform in her most polished French.

It is sad to think that we shall hear no more the throaty, pomp-deflating chuckle of one who was renowned for her kind hospitality during a decade of great elegance spent in Sauveterre, and whose devotion to teaching and mentoring in the humanities will not soon be forgotten. She then returned to Bristol University where she taught in the French department as Senior Lecturer. Antisemitism and the problems of Jewish identity in late nineteenth-century France, first published by CUP and now in paperback The second of these was awarded the Jewish Chronicle non-fiction prize.

We remember Nelly as a very warm-hearted person, with a ready, sometimes impish, wit and an enthusiastic interest in Zola, the Dreyfus case and that whole period which she had researched in depth and knew so very well. Always good-humoured, she was a very welcome member and participant in the Emile Zola Society; her contributions to our Society will be long remembered, and her friendly and lively presence will be greatly missed. Valerie Minogue. It is sad indeed that the room we had is now too expensive for us. We have held our meetings elsewhere, and More House, near as it is to our previous home, seems to suit very well.

Eileen Horne gave some readings from her book, Zola and the Victorians - a second edition has come out this year. We went to a restaurant for a convivial dinner after the Seminar. The Annual Dinner in April was as usual a friendly and jolly buffet supper at the Bistro. And what of the future?

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Bloom's Modern Critical Views - Ernest Hemingway

I hope you all have your copies of the Bulletin , and hope you will enjoy it. The current year has seen expenditure on our successful March Seminar on 'Scenes of Family Life's and on our double October issue of the Society's Bulletin , illustrated this year with engravings from Zola's novels from the collection of our vice-president Keith Howell.

We have also invited several speakers to our meetings, which incurred the payment of reasonable expenses and hospitality. We are still, however, spending more money than we have received. We are no longer holding our meetings in the French Institute, because their costs for renting a room are very high: the item on hire of rooms reflects this change. More needs to be done to increase our membership and general outreach. The Bulletin needs more input from Members who should please tell us what they are looking for and would like to see appear in it. Larger illustrations?

Less illustrations and more texts? Pamela has offered to welcome people at the door and ask them for their support. Proposal seconded by Miriam. On the question of increasing the price of the Membership, our Treasurer thought that we might lose a few Members in the process; some Members felt that everyone could chip-in on the day of the Meeting; others put forward the view that Members were already paying for membership,and therefore did not have to contribute to extra payments.

So far only 13 Members can be accommodated; it will be on a first come basis. All current Officers agreed to sit again for the coming year and were duly re-elected by the Meeting. Sati offered to have a go at a Zola Quiz for the Website a free Membership for first correct answer. But such a page can only happen if we actually get some comments or letters, so I'm taking this opportunity to remind you. For instance, some of you may have been listening to the Radio 4 version of Zola's novels, with Glenda Jackson narrating. We'd be delighted to have your comments on that. Our annual dinner at the Bistro in April was the usual, jolly affair which I think we all greatly enjoyed.

And now what of the future? We don't have a February talk lined up yet, but I think that may be arranged very soon, and we shall of course let you know by email, and through the website, as soon as we have that sorted. The Sixth of our Saturday Seminars will take place on March 19th the theme will be 'Scenes of Domestic Life' : we're inviting papers not only on Zola but also on other writers and artists of that time. Further items of the programme will be publicised as soon as available. I hope, however, that we shall settle down happily in a new habitat.

We also invited several speakers to our meetings which incurred the payment of reasonable expenses and hospitality. However, the present financial position of the Society leaves room for concern. Following an excess of expenditure over income in the year we have again spent more than we have received. We now face additional costs for the hire of rooms for our meetings. To address this negative financial trend I suggest that we should increase our membership, publicise our activities more effectively, find ways of increasing our overall income, and, since we have some capital in hand, we should devote money to our next scheduled Saturday Seminar in March and to a projected international colloquium in France in Such, then, is his life.

Naturalism | art | qyhymelaqo.tk

He works assiduously and the number of his canvases is already considerable. He paints without getting discouraged; without wearying; marching forward according to his own lights. Then he returns to his home and there tastes the quiet pleasures of the modern bourgeois. He goes out a great deal, following the same sort of life as most people, but perhaps with this difference, that he is more quiet and cultivated than the majority. I would not like to lay down the principle, as an argument in favour of Edouard Manet, that because he wasted his time at Thomas Couture's, a student's failure to follow the teaching of his master is a mark of genius.

In the career of every artist, there is necessarily a period of groping and hesitation which lasts, more or less, for a long time; it is admitted that each artist must pass through this period in the studio of a professor, and I see no harm in that. The advice received here, even though it may, to being with, prevent the expression of original talent, does not prevent this talent from eventually manifesting itself; the studio influence will sooner or later be quite forgotten so long as the artist has individuality and perseverance.

But in the present case, it pleases me to regard Edouard Manet's long and difficult apprenticeship as a symptom of originality. It would be a long list if I were to mention here all those artists who were discouraged by their masters and who later became men of the greatest merit. IVA Effects and Impressions are a race apart, each one adds his word to the great sentence which humanity writes. And which will never be complete. They are destined themselves in their own turn to be masters, egoists set in their own opinions.

He spoke in a lan guage full of harshness and grace which thoroughly alarmed the public. I do not claim that it was an entirely new language and that it did not contain some Spanish turns of phrase about which moreover I will have to make some explanation. But judging by the forcefulness and truth of certain pictures, it was clear that an artist had been born to us.

He spoke a language which he had made his own, and which henceforth belonged entirely to him. This is how I explain the birth of a true artist, Edouard Manet, for example. Feeling that he was making no progress by copying the masters, or by painting Nature as seen through the eyes of individuals who differed in character from himself, he came to understand, quite naturally, one fine day, that it only remained to him to see Nature as it really is, without looking at the works or studying the opinions of others.

From the moment he conceived this idea, he took some object, person or thing, placed it at the end of his studio and began to reproduce it on his canvas in accordance with his own outlook and understanding. He made an effort to forget everything he had learned in museums; he tried to forget all the advice that he had been given and all the paintings that he had ever seen. All that remained was a singular gifted intelligence in the presence of Nature, translating it in its own manner.

Thus the artist produced an oeuvre which was his own flesh and blood. Certainly, this work was linked with the great family of works already created by mankind; it resembled, more or less, certain among them. But it had in a high degree its own 'beauty - I should say vitality and personal quality. The different components, taken perhaps from here and there, of which it was composed, combined to produce a completely new flavour and personal point of view; and this combination, created for the first time, was an aspect of things hitherto unknown to human genius. From then onwards Manet found his direction; or to put it better, he had found himself.

He was seeing things with his own eyes, and in each of his canvases he was able to give us a translation of Nature in that original language which he had just found in himself. I am forced here, to my greatest regret, to set forth some general ideas. My aesthetic, or rather the science which I will call 'the modern aesthetic', differs too much from the dogma which has been taught up till now, to risk speaking without making myself perfectly clear.


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Here is the popular opinion concerning art. There is an 'absolute' of beauty which is regarded as something outside the artist or, to express it better, there is a perfect ideal for which every artist reaches out, and which he attains more or less successfully. From this it is assumed that there is a common denominator of beauty.

This common denominator is applied to every picture produced, and according to how far the work approaches or recedes from this common denominator, the work is declared good or less good. Circumstances have elected that the Classical Greek should be regarded as the standard of beauty, so that all works of art created by mankind have ever since been judged on their greater or lesser resemblance to Greek works of art.

The 'absolute' of beauty is there, unchangeable, dominating the centuries. All life, all passions, all that creative energy which has enjoyed itself and suffered for two thousand years is miserably crushed under this idea. Here, then, is what I believe concerning art. I embrace all humanity that has ever lived and which at all times, in all climates, under all circumstances, has felt, in the presence of Nature, an imperious need to create and reproduce objects and people by means of the arts.

Thus I have a vast panorama, each part of which interests and moves me profoundly. Every great artist who comes to the fore gives us a new and personal vision of Nature. Here 'reality' is the fixed element, and it is the differences in outlook of the artists which has given to works of art their individual characteristics. For me, it is the different outlooks, the constantly changing view-points, that give works of art their tremendous human interest. I would like all the pictures of all the painters in the world to be assembled in one vast hall where, picture by picture, we would be able to read the epic of human creation.

The theme would always be this self-same 'nature', this self-same 'reality' and the variations on the theme would be achieved by the individual and original methods by which artists depict God's great creation. In order to pronounce fair judgment on works of art, the public should stand in the middle of the vast hall. Here beauty is no longer 'absolute' - a ridiculous common denominator. Beauty becomes human life itself; the human element, mixed with the fixed element of 'reality' giving birth to a creation which belongs to mankind.

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Beauty lies within us, and not without. What is the use of philosophic abstractions! Of what use is a perfection dreamed up by a little group of men! It is humanity that interests me. What moves me, what gives me exquisite pleasure is to find in each of he creations of man an artist, a brother, who shows me with all his strength and with A his tenderness the face of Nature under a different guise.

He can then state that to the genesis of human creation another page has been added; that an artist has been born who has given Nature a new soul and new horizons. Our creation stretches from the past into the infinite future.

University of Kannur M.A. English Literature Scholarly Materials

Every society will produce its artists, who will bring with them their own points of view. No systems, no theories can hold back life in these unceasing productions. Our task then, as judges of art, is limited to establishing the language and the characters; to study the languages and to say what new subtlety and energy they plossess. The philosophers, if necessary, will take it on themselves to draw up fo rmulas. I only want to analyse facts, and works of art are nothing but simple facts. Thus I put the past on one side - I have no rules or standards - I stand in front of Edouard Manet's pictures as if I were standing in front of something quite new which wish to explain and comment upon.

What first strikes me in these pictures, is how true is the delicate relationship of tone values. Let me explain Some fruit is placed on a table and stands out against a grey background. Between the fruit, according to wether they are nearer or further away, there are gradations of color producing a complete scale of tints. Their works gain thereby a singular precision, great truth and an appearance of great charm. Manet usually paints in a higher key than is actually the case in Nature.

His paintings are light in tone, luminous and pale throughout. An abundance of pure light gently illuminates his subjects. There is not the slightest forced effect here; people and landsdapes are bathed in a sort of gay transluscence which permeates the whole canvas. What strikes me is due to the exact observation of the law of tone values.

A head posed against a wall becomes only a patch of something more, or less, grey; and the clothing, in juxtaposition to the head, becomes, for example, a patch of colour which is more, or less white. Thus a great simplicity is achieved - hardly any details, a combination of accurate and delicate patches of colour, which, from a few paces away, give the picture an impressive sense of relief.

I stress this characteristic of Edouard Manet's works, because it is their dominating feature and makes them what they are. The whole of the artist's personality consists in the way his eye functions: he sees things in terms of light, colour and m asses. What strikes me in the third place is his elegance - a little dry but charming. Let us understand each other. I am not referring to the pink and white elegance of the heads of china dolls, I am referring to a penetrating and truly human elegance.

Edouard Manet is a man of the world and in his pictures there are certain exquisite lines, certain pretty and graceful attitudes which testify to his love for the elegance of the salons. Therein the unconscious element, the true nature of the painter is revealed. And here I take the opportunity to deny the existence of any relationship as has been claimed between the paintings of Edouard Manet and the verses of Charles Baudelaire.

I know that a lively sympathy has brought painter and poet together, but I believe that the former has never had the stupidity, like so many others, to put 'ideas' into his painting. The brief analysis of his talent which I have just made, proves with what lack of affectation he confronts Nature. It is ridiculous to try to turn an artist, obeying such instincts, into a mystical dreamer. After analysis, synthesis; let us take no matter what picture by the artist, and let us not look for anything other than what is in it - some illuminated objects and living creatures.

The general impression, as I have said, is of luminous clarity. The exact interpretation of the tone values imbues the canvas with atmosphere and enhances the value of each object. It has been said that Edouard Manet's canvases recall the 'penny-plain, twopence coloured' pictures from Epinal.

There is a lot of truth in this joke which is in fact a compliment. Here and there the manner of working is the same, the colours are applied in broad patches, but with this difference, that the workmen of Epinal employ primary colours without bothering about values, while Edouard Manet uses many more colours and relates them exactly.

It would be much more interesting to compare this simplified style of painting with Japanese engravings, which resemble Manet's work in their strange elegance and magnificent bold patches of colour. One's first impression of a picture by Edouard Manet is that it is a trifle 'hard'. One is not accustomed to seeing reproductions of reality so simplified and so sincere. But as I have said, they possess a certain stiff but surprising elegance. No longer do we assume novels have a duty to be uplifting or refined. May it all crumble, may my works perish if Dreyfus is not innocent! In he was found dead at his home on the 9th arrondissement from carbon monoxide poisoning in a possible anti-Dreyfusard revenge killing.

He may have been less a martyr to literary freedom than to the value he chose as the title of his last, unfinished novel: Justice. We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Telegraph website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future.